• TRL 1

    1. Basic principles observed and reported

    Lowest level of technology readiness. Scientific research begins to be translated into applied research and development (R&D). Examples might include paper studies of a technology’s basic properties.

  • TRL 2

    2. Technology concept and/or application formulated

    Invention begins. Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. Applications are speculative, and there may be no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumptions. Examples are limited to analytic studies.

  • TRL 3

    3. Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof of concept

    Active R&D is initiated. This includes analytical studies and laboratory studies to physically validate the analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative.

Research Councils

Applied R&D

  • TRL 4

    4. Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment

    Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.

  • TRL 5

    5. Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment

    Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so they can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include “high-fidelity” laboratory integration of components.

  • TRL 6

    6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment

    Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.

Catapult focus


  • TRL 7

    7. System prototype demonstration in an operational environment.

    Prototype near or at planned operational system. Represents a major step up from TRL 6 by requiring demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment (e.g., in an aircraft, in a vehicle, or in space).

  • TRL 8

    8. Actual system completed and qualified through test and demonstration.

    Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation (DT&E) of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications.

  • TRL 9

    9. Actual system proven through successful mission operation

    Actual application of the technology in its final form and under mission conditions, such as those encountered in operational test and evaluation (OT&E). Examples include using the system under operational mission conditions.

Private Sector Funds

Technology Readiness

A new product or technology goes through several cycles of experimentation, refinement and testing before it can be incorporated into industrial-scale production systems.

At HVM Catapult, we help developers and adopters of new technologies to measure their product’s stage of development and its readiness for manufacture through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs).

As the interactive graphic above shows, the readiness levels provide common terms to broadly define technology, from concept to commercial production, through to disposal. We provide general comparisons – to help you commercialise your technology and bring it to market. We typically operate in the area of TRL 4 to 6.

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